Types of Contaminants

Types of Contaminants

Overview

Golden State Water’s team regularly monitors and tests for more than 230 regulated and unregulated contaminants in each of our 37 water systems.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in the earth’s crust that is widely distributed in the environment.

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Fluoride

Fluoride occurs naturally in water supplies and historically was regulated as a contaminant as it is a very common element and at elevated levels over a long period of time can result in a condition known as fluorosis.

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Manganese

Manganese is an element that occurs naturally in water, soil, air and food, and can be found in ground and surface waters. Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in the earth’s crust and is a component of over 250 minerals.

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Perchlorate

Perchlorate is a chemical that forms naturally in the atmosphere and occurs naturally in arid states in the Southwest United States. It can also be found in some fertilizers. In manufacturing, perchlorate and its salts are used in solid propellant for rockets, missiles and fireworks, and for the production of matches, flares, pyrotechnics, ordnance and explosives.

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PFOA AND PFOS

Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) are fluorinated organic chemicals that have been used in the making of domestic products such as carpets, cookware and other products that are resistant to water, grease or stains. PFOA and PFOS have also been used for suppressing fires, primarily at airfields and military bases.

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Unregulated Contaminants

The fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR4) was published in the Federal Register by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in December 2016, requiring that all large drinking water systems serving more than 10,000 customers